<header><h1>Human Migration + Social Landscape</h1></header> <tw-sidebar id="title"> <ul style="list-style-type:none;"> <li>[[Home->Human Migration + Social Landscape]]</li> <li>[[Research Methology->Research Methodology]]</a></li> </ul></tw-sidebar> <p><span class="passage">Human Migration + Social Landscape is a project attempts to question social paradigm causing transnational migration through the context of history. With global tension and public fear toward issues on Syrian refugees crisis and Islamic States Terrorism, the project focuses timeline of mass migration throughout the history, and causes and effects of the events though perspective of the contemporary time. Migration has been a constant factor of human history. – "homo migrans" has existed ever since "homo sapiens". Moving away from the traditional nation-based dichotomy of emigration – immigration, the less specific term migration allows for many possible trajectories, time spans, directions and destinations. It can be temporary or long-term, voluntary or forced. It can occur in stages or in cycles, and can be mono-directional or more varied. (link: "2")[(goto:"References")]</span></p> <h4>(text-style: "blur")[Terminology]</h4><p><span class="passage">(link: "Human Migration")[Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling temporarily or permanently in the new location. The movement is often over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration is also possible; indeed, this is the dominant form globally. Migration may be individuals, family units or in large groups. (link: "1")[(goto:"References")]] (link: "Historical Analysis")[Purposes of historical analysis is important to bear in mind that regimes throughout the world share the desire, if not always the ability, to control migration. Nevertheless, this can also entail highly contradictory governmental responses towards illegal migration – as can be seen very clearly in the U.S. state's ambivalent attitude towards Mexican immigration over the course of this past century. Selective enforcement of American immigration law – coordinated with seasonal labor demand by U.S. employers – has long maintained a "revolving door policy" whereby illegalization and deportations occur concurrently with the large-scale, largely permanent importation of Mexican migrant labor. One of the consequences of this history of selective enforcement policies is that the sociopolitical category "illegal alien" has itself become saturated with racial connotations and indeed has long served as a constitutive dimension of the racialized inscription of Mexicans in the United States. (link: "2")[(goto:"References")]]</span></p> <h4>(text-style: "blur")[Research Methodology]</h4><p><span class="passage">I assign causes of mass migration into (link: "four categories")[(goto:"Research Methodology")] and search each word along with the word //migration//. The pertinent websites are used as resources for contents.</span></p> <span class="passage">In [[Conclusion]], historical events listed in the research provides wisdom based knowledge how the world can face Syrian refugee crisis and xenophobia toward people of Middle East descents. As a big fan of Jacques Derrida what we need in 21st century is Democratic Hospitality.</span> <footer><div><table width="100%"><tbody class="imgtitle"><tr><td width="33.33%" style="text-align:center;">*** </td><td width="33.33%" style="text-align:center;"><a href="mailto:***@gmail.com" style="color:#0098f8;text-decoration:none;">E-MAIL</a> </td><td width="33.33%" style="text-align:center;"><a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/"><img alt="Creative Commons License" style="border-width:0" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" title="This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License" /></a></td></tr></tbody></table></div> </footer> <h2 align="center">References</h2> <div class="biblo"> 1. (link:"Wiki")[<div width="300";height="200"><img src="biblo1.png" width="100%" alt="Wikipedia" /><div class="imgtitle"><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_migration"; target="_blank">Human Migration</a></div></div>] 2. (link:"Migration and Migration History")[<div width="300";height="200"><img src="biblo2.png" width="100%" alt="docupedia" /><div class="imgtitle"><a href="https://docupedia.de/zg/Migration_and_Migration_History"; target="_blank">Migration and Migration History</a></div></div>] 3. (link:"Introduction to Colonial African American Life")[<div width="300";height="200"><img src="biblo3.png" width="100%" alt="Introduction to Colonial African American Life" /><div class="imgtitle"><a href="http://www.history.org/almanack/people/african/aaintro.cfm"; target="_blank">Introduction to Colonial African American Life</a></div></div>] 4. (link:"Mass immigration and WW I")[<div width="300";height="200"><img src="biblo4.png" width="100%" alt="Mass immigration and WW I" /><div class="imgtitle"><a href="http://www.history.org/almanack/people/african/aaintro.cfm"; target="_blank">Mass immigration and WW I</a></div></div>] 5. (link:"World War I and immigration")[<div width="300";height="200"><img src="./biblo5.png" width="100%" alt="World War I and immigration" /><div class="imgtitle"><a href="http://immigrationtous.net/318-world-war-i-and-immigration.html"; target="_blank">World War I and immigration</a></div></div>] 6. (link:"When America Was Overcome with Anti-Japanese Xenophobia ")[<div width="300";height="200"><img src="biblo6.png" width="100%" alt="When America Was Overcome with Anti-Japanese Xenophobia " /><div class="imgtitle"><a href="http://inthesetimes.com/working/entry/18631/japanese-internment-world-war-ii-ilwu-labor-unions"; target="_blank">When America Was Overcome with Anti-Japanese Xenophobia </a></div></div>] 7. (link:"Post-World War II Migration")[<div width="300";height="200"><img src="biblo7.png" width="100%" alt="Post-World War II Migration" /><div class="imgtitle"><a href="http://www.cato.org/blog/post-world-war-ii-migration-lessons-studying-liberalized-immigration"; target="_blank">Post-World War II Migration and Lessons for Studying Liberalized Immigration</a></div></div>] 8. (link:"Asian Americans and the hidden ‘bamboo ceiling’ in the tech industry")[<div width="300";height="200"><img src="biblo8.png" width="100%" alt="Asian Americans and the hidden ‘bamboo ceiling’ in the tech industry" /><div class="imgtitle"><a href="http://fusion.net/story/136525/asian-americans-and-the-hidden-bamboo-ceiling-in-the-tech-industry/"; target="_blank">Asian Americans and the hidden ‘bamboo ceiling’ in the tech industry</a></div></div>] 9. (link:"Banksy Paints 'Son of a Migrant From Syria' Steve Jobs at Refugee Camp")[<div width="300";height="200"><img src="biblo9.png" width="100%" alt="Banksy Paints 'Son of a Migrant From Syria' Steve Jobs at Refugee Camp" /><div class="imgtitle"><a href="http://www.nbcnews.com/tech/tech-news/banksy-paints-son-migrant-syria-steve-jobs-refugee-camp-n478611"; target="_blank">Banksy Paints 'Son of a Migrant From Syria' Steve Jobs at Refugee Camp</a></div></div>] 10. (link:"Defining Islamophobia")[<div width="300";height="200"><img src="biblo10.png" width="100%" alt="Defining Islamophobia" /><div class="imgtitle"><a href="http://crg.berkeley.edu/content/islamophobia/defining-islamophobia"; target="_blank">Defining **Islamophobia**</a></div></div>] 11. (link:"The Muslims who shaped America")[<div width="300";height="200"><img src="biblo11.png" width="100%" alt="The Muslims who shaped America" /><div class="imgtitle"><a href="http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/dec/08/donald-trump-famous-muslims-us-history"; target="_blank">The Muslims who shaped America </a></div></div>] 12. (link:"10 Most Devastating Bombing Campaigns of WWII")[<div width="300";height="200"><img src="biblo12.png" width="100%" alt="10 Most Devastating Bombing Campaigns of WWII" /><div class="imgtitle"><a href="http://www.onlinemilitaryeducation.org/posts/10-most-devastating-bombing-campaigns-of-wwii/"; target="_blank">10 Most Devastating Bombing Campaigns of WWII</a></div></div>] 13. (link:"Democratic Hospitalities: national borders and the impossibility of the other for democracy")[<div width="300";height="200"><img src="biblo13.png" width="100%" alt="Democratic Hospitalities: national borders and the impossibility of the other for democracy" /><div class="imgtitle"><a href="http://www.transformationsjournal.org/journal/issue_16/article_02.shtml"; target="_blank">Democratic Hospitalities: national borders and the impossibility of the other for democracy</a></div></div>] </div> <nav><h5 align="center">[[Home >>->Human Migration + Social Landscape]]</h5></nav><h3 style="text-align:center;">WW I + WW II & Mass Migration</h3> <p><span class="passage">The U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services reports that between 1900 and 1920 the nation admitted over 14.5 million immigrants. (link:"4")[(goto:"References")]</span></p> <h5>War Time Challenges</h5><p><span class="passage">The immigration services faced challenges due to the outbreak of World War I greatly reduced immigration from Europe but also imposed new duties on the Immigration Service. Internment of enemy aliens (primarily seamen who worked on captured enemy ships) became a Service responsibility. Passport requirements imposed by a 1918 Presidential Proclamation increased agency paperwork during immigrant inspection and deportation activities. The passport requirement also disrupted routine traffic across United States’ land borders with Canada and Mexico. Consequently, the Immigration Service began to issue Border Crossing Cards.</span></p> <h4 style="text-align:center;">(text-style:"blur")[Xenophobia]</h4> <h4 style="text-align:center;">(text-style:"blur")[WW I]</h4><p><span class="passage">Poles, Ukrainians, Greeks, Germans, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Slovenes, Jews, and dozens of other ethnic groups were fleeing repressive regimes in Russia, Austria-Hungary, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire, seeking both economic opportunities and personal freedoms in North America. In order to ensure that Bolsheviks, anarchists, Jews, and other "undesirables” were kept to a minimum, the Emergency Quota Act set the number of immigrants from each national origin group at 3 percent of the foreign-born population of that country in 1910, a period when immigration from England, Ireland, Scotland, and Scandinavia had been particularly high. (link:"5")[(goto:"References")]</span></p> <h4 style="text-align:center;">(text-style:"blur")[WW II]</h4><div width="100%" height="250"><table><tbody><tr><td width="50%"><p><span class="passage"><img src="https://www.washington.edu/uwired/outreach/cspn/Website/Images/Curriculum/Asian/33.gif" align="right" width="50%" alt="Japanese resident evacuation poster California" title="Japanese resident evacuation poster California" /> During World War II, Chinese, Korean and political opponents of Japanese Empire fled to North America seeking for safety from Japan. Japanese Americans and Japanese Canadians were segregated from the population and lost basic rights and liberties after the Pearl Harbor. The North America was able to get over Japanese xenophobia eventually in effort of labor union. International Longshoremen’s & Warehousemen’s Union [ILWU] President Harry Bridges, probably the most well-known left-wing labor leader in mid-20th century America, declared the ideal of equality into practice as the union policy. (link:"6")[(goto:"References")]</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="100%"><img src="http://www.colorlines.com/sites/default/files/images/articles/2012/02/internmentline.jpg" width="100%" alt="scene from Japanese interment camp" title="scene from Japanese interment camp" /><div class="imgtitle">Scene from Japanese interment camp</div></td></tr><tr><td width="100%"><iframe width="100%" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/AcBx2B-M0Gw" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen alt="George Takei Invites Donald Trump To Allegiance On Broadway" ></iframe><div class="imgtitle">George Takei Invites Donald Trump To Allegiance On Broadway: Donald Trump recently said he might have supported the internment camps of WW II. Takei felt he had to respond, and in the best way he could.</div></td></tr></tbody></table> <nav><h5 align="center">[[Next Period >>->Economic Opportunity]] | [[Home >>->Human Migration + Social Landscape]]</h5></nav><h3 style="text-align:center;">European Colonization of the Americas.</h3> <h4 style="text-align:center; ">(text-style:"blur")[Africa and the Transatlantic Slave Trade]</h4><p><span class="passage">The Age of Exploration embarked territorial expansion for European countries. Between sixteenth to nineteenth century, approximately twelves million Africans alone were forced to migrate into American colonies though only half a million survived from a month long trip of the Middle Passage <div width="100%" height="250"><table><tbody><tr><td width="50%"><img src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bf/Triangular_trade.svg/350px-Triangular_trade.svg.png" width="100%" alt="The Middle Passage" title="Triangular trade between western Europe, Africa and Americas." /></td><td width="50%"><div class="imgtitle">**The Middle Passage** Commercial goods from Europe were shipped to Africa for sale and traded for enslaved Africans. Africans were in turn brought to the regions depicted in blue, in what became known as the "Middle Passage". African slaves were thereafter traded for raw materials, which were returned to Europe to complete the "Triangular Trade".</div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></span></p> <table><tbody><tr><td width="65%"><img src="http://cdn.static-economist.com/sites/default/files/images/print-edition/20131221_JWP001_0.jpg" width="100%" alt="speculated scene of a boat on the middle passage" title="speculated scene of a boat on the middle passage" /><div class="imgtitle">Source: Economist (dot) COM </div></td><td width="35%"><img src="http://yoursdp.org/People/human-rights/Slavery.jpg" width="100%" alt="slave labor" title="Slave labor" /><div class="imgtitle">Source: ABC School (dot) ORG Freedom Site</div></div></td></tr></tbody></table> <h4 style="text-align:center;">(text-style:"blur")[EFFECTS]</h4><span class="passage"> Economical profitability due to slave labor is still in debate. Nonetheless, slavery was the foundation for early colonial agricultural system. Farm goods were composed of tobacco for the mainlands and crops for daily life. Slave labor was essential for survival of the colonies. (link: "3")[(goto:"References")] </span> <nav><h5 align="center">[[Next Period >>->WWI & WWII]] | [[Home >>->Human Migration + Social Landscape]]</h5></nav><h3 style="text-align:center;">Immigration and Economic Opportunity</h3> <p><span class="passage">After the World War II, terminological usage of //Migration// and //Immigration// changed along with complex social structure caused by industrialization of 19th century and urbanization. Migration defines internal movement and immigration is international movement both causing population shift.</span></p><table><tbody><tr><td width="100%"><img src="http://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/wp-content/uploads/southern-born.jpg" width="100%" alt="U.S. Department of Homeland Security and The Southern Diaspora by James N. Gregory" title="U.S. Department of Homeland Security and The Southern Diaspora by James N. Gregory" /><div class="imgtitle">Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security and The Southern Diaspora by James N. Gregory. (link:"7")[(goto:"References")]</div></td></tr></tbody></table><p><span class="passage">National migration and immigration played in feeding economic growth during the 1950s and 1960s. As the graph above indicates, economic growth at the 1950s and 1960s rate would be impossible to achieve without immigration.</span></p><table><tbody><tr><td width="33.75%"><img src="https://d262ilb51hltx0.cloudfront.net/max/800/1*aw9CXe-PekLGFZvcC117cA.jpeg" width="100%" alt="Time magazine cover of asian kids" title="Time magazine cover of asian kids" /><div class="imgtitle">Source: Time Magazine (link:"8")[(goto:"References")]</div></td><td width="66.25%"><img src="http://media4.s-nbcnews.com/j/newscms/2015_50/1336846/jobs_04-2_2469e3508791000108d9f1bb585d0351.nbcnews-fp-1200-800.jpg" width="100%" alt="Banksy Paints 'Son of a Migrant From Syria' Steve Jobs at Refugee Camp" title="Banksy Paints 'Son of a Migrant From Syria' Steve Jobs at Refugee Camp" /><div class="imgtitle">Source: NBC News (link:"9")[(goto:"References")]</div></div></td></tr></tbody></table><p><span class="passage">Lawful immigration of late 1900s provides economic growth according to the research performed by CATO Institution. (link:"7")[(goto:"References")]</span> <nav><h5 align="center">[[Next Period >>->War of Religions]] | [[Home >>->Human Migration + Social Landscape]]</h5></nav><h3 style="text-align:center;">War of Religions and Races</h3> <h4 style="text-align:center;">(text-style:"blur")[Islamophobia]</h4><p><span class="passage">**Islamophobia** was first introduced as a concept in a 1991 Runnymede Trust Report and defined as "unfounded hostility towards Muslims, and therefore fear or dislike of all or most Muslims." The term was coined in the context of Muslims in the UK in particular and Europe in general, and formulated based on the more common "xenophobia" framework. (link:"10")[(goto:"References")]</span></P> <table><tbody><tr><td width="100%"><img src="https://i.guim.co.uk/img/media/c34bf24a4907607fcddb4dd20087856fa6b038dd/0_0_1984_1190/master/1984.jpg?w=620&q=85&auto=format&sharp=10&s=89540e8cc3e91192cf27b54dda5ca274" width="100%" alt="The Muslims who shaped America – from brain surgeons to rappers" title="The Muslims who shaped America – from brain surgeons to rappers" /><div class="imgtitle">Source: The Guardian, Dr Ayub Ommaya, responsible for many medical innovations. Photograph: Brian Snyder/AP (link:"11")[(goto:"References")]</div></td></tr></tbody></table><p><span class="passage">The world is in fear of IS terrorism. Their violent act camouflaged in a shell of Muslim. Syrians are suffering and have made a long journey for hopes. Syria is completely destroyed by massive bombings.</span> <table><tbody><tr><td width="100%"><img src="http://ichef-1.bbci.co.uk/news/660/cpsprodpb/120E0/production/_87125937_syria_us_russian_airstrikes_624_09_12_15.png" width="100%" alt="UK, Russian and US-led strikes in Syria" title="UK, Russian and US-led strikes in Syria" /><div class="imgtitle">UK, Russian and US-led strikes in Syria</div></td></tr></tbody></table> <p><span class="passage">Many refugees fled for security and safety from Europes and Asia during World War II. (link:"12")[(goto:"References")] As it was mentioned previously, there were xenophobia toward Japanese from public consensus, and political direction under President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the deportation and incarceration. Illogical hatred caused by fear mongering should not alter our awareness to optimistic possibilities. </span></p> <nav><h5 align="center">[[Conclusion >>->Conclusion]] | [[Home >>->Human Migration + Social Landscape]]</h5></nav><div class="passage"> <h3 style="text-align:center;">Research Methodology</h3><ul><li>Modern Colonization + Migration: [Slavery]<c1| <span class="poem">(click: ?c1)[A hand-me-down from your great aunt. [[Slavery]]]</span></li> <li>Wars + Migration: [WWI & WW II]<c2| <span class="poem">(click: ?c2)[A garish shade, to your reckoning. [[WWI & WWII]]]</span></li> <li>Transnationalism + Migration: [Industrialization]<c3| <span class="poem">(click: ?c3)[Only their faint shine keeps them from being seen as grey. [[Economic Opportunity]]]</span></li> <li>Migration of 21st Century: [War of Religions and Race]<c4| <span class="poem">(click: ?c4)[Dreadfully heavy, they weigh you down and make dancing arduous. [[War of Religions]]]</span></li> <li>Conclusion: [Democratic Hospitality]<c5| <span class="poem">(click: ?c5)[Democratic Hospitality [[Conclusion]]]</span></li> </ul> </div> <nav><h5 align="center">[[Home >>->Human Migration + Social Landscape]]</h5></nav><h3 style="text-align:center;">Conclusion</h3> <p><span class="passage">Historical events listed in this research hopefully provides wisdom based knowledge how the world can face Syrian refugee crisis and xenophobia toward people of Middle East descents and how individual's own thinking and reaction could change the world into a better place. As a big fan of Jacques Derrida, especially on //Of Hospitality//, I would like to propose a rethinking ground of the current international situations that are irreversible to be others' matter but effecting our daily political and economical situations.</span></p><p><span class="passage">Advancing the “human rights” of refugees operates within the paradigm of on "right" of a guest to ask for refuge. The entry rights relied upon the “hosts’ acceptance of the ‘guest’ and a special contract being drawn up for longer stays. Arguing not against the logic of democratic state sovereignty itself, but rather that this democratic sovereignty entails ethical responses to asylum seekers and refugees that conform to normative universal rights discourse. The formulation of hospitality, democracy refers to the right to determine the border between “inside” and “outside,” “citizen” and “non-citizen,” and to actively patrol this border in the name of the security of the nation-state and democracy. Liberal-democracy practiced in Australia under a Howard Liberal Coalition government conceived of and deployed hospitality according to a logic that announced the “host” and knew the “guest” in advance of any visitation, reconfiguring the relation between “freedom” and “equality” (the democratic project) for xenophobic or neo-liberal agendas. (link:"13")[(goto:"References")]</span></p><p><span class="passage">Democratic Hospitality proposed by Derrida may interpose a range of political and ethical situations caused by our fear of encountering differences and things that are foreign to us. What we need in 21st century is democratic hospitality, empathy and reconstruction of humanity that are fundamental to every humankind.</span></p> <h5 align="center">[[References >>->References]]</h5>